Chapter 1: Verse 41-44

41. O Krishna, the intermingling of castes, indeed leads corrupt members to the hell; and deprived of the offerings of pind-dana and water their ancestors fall.

42. By these misdeeds of the corrupted of the family, bringing about intermingling of castes, the immemorial religious rites and duties related to the caste and the eternal dharma of family is destroyed.

43. We have heard, O Janârdana, that inevitable becomes the dwelling in hell for those in whose family religious practices have been destroyed.

44-what a piety that we have resolved to commit a great sin by being eager to kill our family members out of greed for the pleasure of kingdom.

Arjuna was worried about the fate of his family, in previous verses he talked about the degeneration of women and the family. In following verses too he extends his talks with regard to the result of their corruption and downfall. He says that with the intermingling of castes, the family customs,Vedic rite and its traditions becomes impossible. In the absence of it there is a degradation of family and thus society. such degeneration leads the family to a hellish existence. Not just this but  due to cessation of karmas like pind-dana and tarpan the ancestors of family also suffer, for their very life depend on the rites. It is described with words “लुप्त पिण्डोदकक्रिया “. According to Smritis, until rebirth, ancestor’s life depends solely on the rites. Since the corrupted family members become unqualified to perform the propitiatory rites prescribed in Vedic scriptures such as sraddha and tarpan;the ancestors become deprived of these oblations and enter a hellish existence. It is said that with good karma and the qualified progeny the ancestors of the family become happy.
Explaining it in detail he goes further on beginning with “दोषै र इतः कुलघ्नानाम ” because of these unethical deeds of corrupted members of the family the essential duties prescribed in the Vedic scriptures for the four castes are forsaken. It is instructed by holy sages and the authorized by laws of Manu and others which is the proven means for the highest good. He uses two explanatory words “ kula-dharma and “jati-dharma” which are interlinked. He means by this that once the Jati-dharmah that is the duties of each caste are destroyed “Kula-dharma” is destroyed which is eternal and established by Lord himself.By cessation of “karma” which is the only means of supreme good man losses both the worlds, Arjuna says that inevitable becomes the dwelling in hell for those in whose family’s religious practices have been destroyed. In the last verse he  concludes his  points in grief with some sort of  existential realization with the words : “अहो बत्  महत्  पापं ” Alas what a pity that we have resolved to commit such a great sin that annihilates man’s existence not just in this world but also of heaven and that too just for the pleasure of a kingdom! He repents that It is a sinful act even to think about-this is the purport .




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